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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 10:46 am 
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1818 - First transfusion of human blood.

1843 - First hysterectomy performed, in England.

1843 - First use of ether.

1846 - First public use of anesthesia during surgery. Ether was used. The patient was conscious but felt no pain during the procedure to remove a tumor in his neck.

1867 - British surgeon Joseph Lister publishes Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery, extolling the virtues of cleanliness in surgery. The mortality rate for surgical patients immediately falls.

1885 - First successful appendectomy performed, in Iowa.

1890s - Widespread use of chemical agents to minimize germs. Carbolic acid was put on incisions to minimize germs and decrease infection rates.

1893 - First successful heart surgery performed, Provident Hospital, Chicago. The surgery repaired the pericardium, the sac around the heart. Many do not consider this to be the first successful "heart surgery" because the heart itself was not operated on.

1895 - First X-ray performed, in Germany.

1896 - First successful heart surgery performed, in Germany. Surgeons repaired a stab wound in the muscle of the right ventricle.

1905 - First successful cornea transplant.

1917 - First documented plastic surgery performed, on a burned English sailor.

1922 - Insulin first used for treatment of diabetes, allowing diabetics to survive after diagnosis.

1928 - Antibiotics discovered.

1930 - German man has the first sex change operation (to a female).

1937 - First blood bank opens, helping make more surgery possible by treating bleeding during the procedure.

1940 - First metal hip replacement surgery performed.

1950s - First LASIK eye procedures performed, in Columbia.

1950 - First successful organ transplant. The kidney recipient rejected the organ after eight months.

1952 - First successful heart surgery where the heart was stopped and restarted.

1953 - First successful surgery using a heart-lung bypass machine.

1954 - First successful living donor kidney transplant, the kidney was donated by the recipient's twin brother. The recipient lived eight years after the procedure.

1966 - First successful pancreas transplant.

1967 - First successful liver transplant.

1967 - First heart transplant surgery performed, by South African Christian Barnard. The heart recipient survived 18 days until succumbing to pneumonia.

1975 - First organ surgery performed using laparoscopic, or minimally invasive, technique.

1978 - First "test tube" baby born.

1982 - Jarvik-7 artificial heart used.

1984 - Baby Fae survives 21 days after being transplanted with the heart of a baboon.

1985 - First documented robotic surgery.

1999 - First successful hand transplant (previous patients had rejected their grafts).

2000 - da Vinci robotic surgical system wins U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. The system is now used in a wide variety of procedures, including prostate surgeries and coronary artery bypass.

2007 - First natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery performed. This technique uses a natural body opening, such as the mouth, to insert instruments and minimize recovery times.

2010 - World's first full-face transplant performed, in Spain.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 10:49 am 
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/

Animals have been used repeatedly throughout the history of biomedical research. Early Greek physician-scientists, such as Aristotle, (384 – 322 BC) and Erasistratus, (304 – 258 BC), performed experiments on living animals. Likewise, Galen (129 – 199 / 217 AD), a Greek physician who practiced in Rome and was a giant in the history of medicine, conducted animal experiments to advance the understanding of anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), an Arab physician in twelfth century Moorish Spain, introduced animal testing as an experimental method for testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 11:54 am 
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INSTINCT is exatly what I mean:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/instinct
1. An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli: the spawning instinct in salmon; altruistic instincts in social animals.

2. A powerful motivation or impulse.

3. An innate capability or aptitude: an instinct for tact and diplomacy.

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/instinct
noun
1.
an inborn pattern of activity or tendency to action common to a given biological species.
2.
a natural or innate impulse, inclination, or tendency.
3.
a natural aptitude or gift: an instinct for making money.
4.
natural intuitive power.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Origin:
1375–1425; late Middle English < Latin instinctus prompting, instigation, enthusiasm, equivalent to *insting ( uere ) ( in- in-2 + *sting ( u ) ere presumably, to prick; see distinct) + -tus suffix of v. action

Synonyms
3. genius, knack, faculty, talent.

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/instinct
Noun[edit]
instinct (plural instincts)
1.A natural or inherent impulse or behaviour. Many animals fear fire by instinct. [quotations ▼]

2.An intuitive reaction not based on rational conscious thought. Debbie's instinct was to distrust John.


Animals, among witch humans, have instincts:
And the instinct is not always egoistic. It can be ALTRUISTIC toward other individuals of the same or of different species.
I think the nature teach us to protect ourselves and we all, so we as individual, as a species, as part of the animal kingdom and as part of the world.
It is a natural rule for the CONSERVATION.

Anyway in some of the videos I showed, there are very high examples of instinct: the moral suffering for a died friend. There is not logic in this kind of suffering because the friend is already dead. The cat tries to reanimate his friend and when he realizes that there is nothing to do, he stays there with him, frustrated and saddened, in a very dangerous place.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 12:58 pm 
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LetiziaPallara wrote:
INSTINCT is exatly what I mean:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/instinct
1. An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli: the spawning instinct in salmon; altruistic instincts in social animals.


Which is different from empathy, which should be exactly what you mean. The instincts do not reflect emotions or empathy.


Quote:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/instinct
noun
1.
an inborn pattern of activity or tendency to action common to a given biological species.

Synonyms
3. genius, knack, faculty, talent.


Not empathy ....


Quote:
Animals, among witch humans, have instincts:
And the instinct is not always egoistic. It can be ALTRUISTIC toward other individuals of the same or of different species.


Which is still not empathy ....

Quote:
Anyway in some of the videos I showed, there are very high examples of instinct: the moral suffering for a died friend.


Yes, there are some instincts exhibited, but not a moral suffering for a dead friend as we know and understand it in humans.

Quote:
There is not logic in this kind of suffering because the friend is already dead.


Really?

Quote:
The cat tries to reanimate his friend and when he realizes that there is nothing to do, he stays there with him, frustrated and saddened, in a very dangerous place.


You assume frustrated and saddened as well as a "very dangerous place" which would have been just as dangerous for the first cat there. Cats, like other animals do not readily comprehend such dangers as they are being killed in such situations often. Between two parked cars would be a protected place.

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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 1:04 pm 
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http://www.iaapea.com/fatalmistakes_page.php?id=10
Animal Tests Cannot Predict What Will Happen with New Medicines

Examples of Adverse Drug Reactions since Thalidomide
(not predicted by animal experiments16 )
Aminorex pulmonary hypertension
Benoxaprofen fatalities, phototoxicity
Chloramphenicol aplastic anaemia
Clindamycin intestinal disease
Clioquinol neurotoxicity
Domperidone cardiotoxicity
Halothane jaundice
Isoprenaline aerosol inhalers asthmatic deaths
Ketoconazole liver damage
Methysergide retroperitoneal fibrosis
Oral contraceptives
Phenylbutazone blood clots
Practolol aplastic anaemia
Prenylamine eye, skin and abdominal toxicity
Stilboestrol vaginal cancer in female offspring
Suprofen kidney dysfunction, side pain
Tycrynafen cardiotoxicity
Zimediline neurotoxicity

In most cases, animal tests cannot predict what will happen when a new medicine is given to people.17 But the tests not only give a false sense of security, there is also the risk that worthwhile therapies may be lost or delayed through toxic effects that do not occur in human beings. A review of 45 drugs by Britain’s Committee on Safety of Medicines found that animal experiments were most likely to predict vomiting and gastrointestinal disturbances. Overall, however, the survey found that, at best, just 25% of the harmful effects observed in animals actually occurred in people.18

http://www.iaapea.com/101.php
Dr Robert Sharpe was a Senior Research Chemist at the prestigious Royal Postgraduate Medical School in London when he found himself at odds with colleagues who tested his chemicals on animals. He resigned his position and began to investigate, what until then he had taken for granted, that animal experiments were vital for medical progress.
1.Transplant Drug almost Lost
2.Leukemia and the Nuclear Industry
3.Migraine Pill's Horrific Side Effect
4.Suprofen Joins Band List
5.Animal Mix Deadly Cocktail of Confusing Results
6.Pesticide Poisonings
7.Arsenic and the Decades of Failure
8.Rodent Tests Miss Industrial Cancer Risk
9.Valuable Eye Therapy Would Not Pass Rabbit Test
10.Rabbit Test Misses Human Eye Irritant
11.Slimming Treatment Caused Cataracts
12.Shock Treatment
13.Body Chemicals Produce Opposite Effects in Animals
14.Blood Pressure Pill Leads to Withdrawal Syndrome
15.Drug Induced Disaster Leaves Thousands Dead
16.Animal Tests Confuse Painkiller Probe
17.Diarrhoea Treatment Leaves 10,000 Victims
18.Women at Risk from Pill Safety Tests
19.Safe Antibiotics Fatal Flaw
20.Doctors Warned about Halothane Liver Toxicity
21.Cancer-Prone Mice Contradict Human Experience
22.Vivisection Undermines Miners Welfare
23.Animal Skin Test not up to Scratch
24.Monkey Experiments put Malaria Patients at Risk
25.Blood Cell Damage missed by Animal Testing
26.Dog Research Undermines Heart Valve Research
27.Animal Tests Used to Promote Superior Arthritus Drug
28.Fatal Diuretic Seemed Safe
29.Angina Drugs Fatal Effects
30.Menthol and Eye Irritation
31.Non-Toxic Ointment Proves Dangerous
32.Safe Cleaning Agents Damage Animal Victims
33.Morphine Madness
34.Chemotherapy Aid Withdrawn
35.Natural Skin Substance Harms Animals
36.Heart Treatment Withdrawn
37.Doctors Warn Against Safe Eye Treatment
38.Animal-Testes Arthritis Drugs Killed Thousands
39.The Chloroform Controvosy
40.Anaemia Cure Fails in Animals
41.Research 'Paralyzed' by Animal Models
42.Anti-Cancer Hope Abandoned
43.Unexpected Eye Problems Led to Drug Rejection
44.Corticosteroids & Birth Defects
45."Harmless" Antidepressant Damaged Liver
46.Thalidomide
47.Beagle Dogs Mislead Cancer Research
48."Harmless" Ulcer Drug Could Cause Heart Failure
49.Antibiotic's Deadly Side-Effect
50.Leukemic Mice Fail Cancer Patients
51.The First Beta-Blockers
52.Minor Tranquillizers Produce Major Problems
53.Rifampcin & The Pill
54.Breast Cancer Drug Overcomes Conflicting Data
55.Steroids & the Immune System
56.X-Rays & Cancer
57.The Methanol Scandal
58.Obesity Drug's Horrific Side Effects
59.Daughters of DES
60.Heart Drug Fears Groundless
61.Pethidine Addiction
62."Safe" Eye Solutions Fail the Human Test
63.Toxic Treatments
64.Animals and Aids
65.Useful Therapies at Risk from False Animal Data
66.Transplant Drug Causes Unexpected Kidney Damage
67.Animal Tests mask Nerve Damage Risk
68.Cough Remedy Leaves Overdose Patients in Coma
69.nine Species Fails to Predict Liver Damage
70.Animal Victims Escalate after ICI Drug Fails
71.Liver Damages not Predicted... Again!
72.Animals Starve in Brain Research Fiasco
73.The Practolol Syndrome
74.Animals Miss Steroid Eye Risk
75.Babies at Risk from Talc
76.Animal Test Minimise Riot Gas Hazard
77.Lab Rats Raise False Fears Over Water Treatment
78.Natural Flavouring banned After Misleading Animal Data
79.Inhalations Test throw False Doubt on Formaldehyde
80.Epilepsy Model Give Fitful Results
81.Workers at Risk fri=om Misleading Animal Tests
82.Dog Deaths Deny Women Contraceptive Option
83.Useless Treatment Poisons Workers
84.Piosoning Tests Offer Little Hope to Overdose Patients
85.Animal Diet Studies Contradict Human Colon Risks
86.Cancer Cure Delayed by False Animal Data
87.Monkey Experiments Delay Polio Breakthrough
88.Antibiotics, Guinea Pigs & Hamsters
89.Animals Divert Attention from Cancer Prevention
90.The Dogma of Death
91.The Opren Affair
92.Laboratory Animals Fail Stroke Victims
93.Flexible Animal Test Support Rival Theories
94.Heart Drugs May Have Killed 3,000
95.Rats Cast Doubt on Olive Oil!
96.Bleach Highlights Faulty Skin Test
97.Smoking Dangers Masked by False Animal Data
98.Tragedy of the Killer Dust
99.Transplant Research Misdirected
100.Drug Danger Undetected
101.Tragedy Hits Hepatitis Victims


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 1:21 pm 
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EMPATHY is one of the instincts we should have: [-X
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/empathy
1. the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another.
2. the imaginative ascribing to an object, as a natural object or work of art, feelings or attitudes present in oneself: By means of empathy, a great painting becomes a mirror of the self.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/empathy
1. Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives. See Synonyms at [u]pity.[/u]
2. The attribution of one's own feelings to an object.

I think the definitions number 1 reflect the animal behaviour of:
the dog saving a newborn child,
the cat trying to reanimate a friend,
the squirrel protecting the corpse of friend risking his life fighting against the crows,
the lioness protecting the little antelope,
the monkey releasing a friend to share her food with her,
the rat releasing his friend from a cage before going to eat.
:clap:


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 3:02 pm 
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LetiziaPallara wrote:
EMPATHY is one of the instincts we should have: [-X
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/empathy
1. the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another.
2. the imaginative ascribing to an object, as a natural object or work of art, feelings or attitudes present in oneself: By means of empathy, a great painting becomes a mirror of the self.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/empathy
1. Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives. See Synonyms at [u]pity.[/u]
2. The attribution of one's own feelings to an object.

I think the definitions number 1 reflect the animal behaviour of:
the dog saving a newborn child,


Except for the whole maternal instinct aspect which is NOT intellectual in any fashion.

Quote:
the cat trying to reanimate a friend,


Again not intellectual but instinctual attempt to awaken a companion.

Quote:
the squirrel protecting the corpse of friend risking his life fighting against the crows,


Crows are not a threat to the life of a grown squirrel, but will attack baby birds and any other weakened prey which could include baby squirrels. That would lead to an instinctual response to crows coming in like that.

Quote:
the lioness protecting the little antelope,


Again maternal insticts not empathy.

Quote:
the monkey releasing a friend to share her food with her,


Emapthy may be assumed but cannot be confirmed. Prostitution is confirmed in apes, but there is a significant difference between that and empathy.

Quote:
the rat releasing his friend from a cage before going to eat.
:clap:


Again instinct provides a better explanation than empathy.

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“Intellect is invisible to the man who has none”
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"The difference between genius and stupidity is that genius has its limits."
Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 3:11 pm 
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LetiziaPallara wrote:
http://www.iaapea.com/fatalmistakes_page.php?id=10
Animal Tests Cannot Predict What Will Happen with New Medicines

Examples of Adverse Drug Reactions since Thalidomide
(not predicted by animal experiments16 )
Aminorex pulmonary hypertension
Benoxaprofen fatalities, phototoxicity
Chloramphenicol aplastic anaemia
Clindamycin intestinal disease
Clioquinol neurotoxicity
Domperidone cardiotoxicity
Halothane jaundice
Isoprenaline aerosol inhalers asthmatic deaths
Ketoconazole liver damage
Methysergide retroperitoneal fibrosis
Oral contraceptives
Phenylbutazone blood clots
Practolol aplastic anaemia
Prenylamine eye, skin and abdominal toxicity
Stilboestrol vaginal cancer in female offspring
Suprofen kidney dysfunction, side pain
Tycrynafen cardiotoxicity
Zimediline neurotoxicity

In most cases, animal tests cannot predict what will happen when a new medicine is given to people.17 But the tests not only give a false sense of security, there is also the risk that worthwhile therapies may be lost or delayed through toxic effects that do not occur in human beings. A review of 45 drugs by Britain’s Committee on Safety of Medicines found that animal experiments were most likely to predict vomiting and gastrointestinal disturbances. Overall, however, the survey found that, at best, just 25% of the harmful effects observed in animals actually occurred in people.18


Odd that the failure of clinical trials is completely ignored in this set of examples. Not only are drugs tested on animals, but they are also tested on humans through a series of clinical trials. To focus on the animal tests as being "worthless" while ignoring the similar failure of clinical trials due to the smaller sampling for such trials is misleading at best and at worst a willful misrepresentation of the truth.

Quote:
http://www.iaapea.com/101.php
Dr Robert Sharpe was a Senior Research Chemist at the prestigious Royal Postgraduate Medical School in London when he found himself at odds with colleagues who tested his chemicals on animals. He resigned his position and began to investigate, what until then he had taken for granted, that animal experiments were vital for medical progress.
1.Transplant Drug almost Lost
2.Leukemia and the Nuclear Industry
3.Migraine Pill's Horrific Side Effect
4.Suprofen Joins Band List
5.Animal Mix Deadly Cocktail of Confusing Results
6.Pesticide Poisonings
7.Arsenic and the Decades of Failure
8.Rodent Tests Miss Industrial Cancer Risk
9.Valuable Eye Therapy Would Not Pass Rabbit Test
10.Rabbit Test Misses Human Eye Irritant
11.Slimming Treatment Caused Cataracts
12.Shock Treatment
13.Body Chemicals Produce Opposite Effects in Animals
14.Blood Pressure Pill Leads to Withdrawal Syndrome
15.Drug Induced Disaster Leaves Thousands Dead
16.Animal Tests Confuse Painkiller Probe
17.Diarrhoea Treatment Leaves 10,000 Victims
18.Women at Risk from Pill Safety Tests
19.Safe Antibiotics Fatal Flaw
20.Doctors Warned about Halothane Liver Toxicity
21.Cancer-Prone Mice Contradict Human Experience
22.Vivisection Undermines Miners Welfare
23.Animal Skin Test not up to Scratch
24.Monkey Experiments put Malaria Patients at Risk
25.Blood Cell Damage missed by Animal Testing
26.Dog Research Undermines Heart Valve Research
27.Animal Tests Used to Promote Superior Arthritus Drug
28.Fatal Diuretic Seemed Safe
29.Angina Drugs Fatal Effects
30.Menthol and Eye Irritation
31.Non-Toxic Ointment Proves Dangerous
32.Safe Cleaning Agents Damage Animal Victims
33.Morphine Madness
34.Chemotherapy Aid Withdrawn
35.Natural Skin Substance Harms Animals
36.Heart Treatment Withdrawn
37.Doctors Warn Against Safe Eye Treatment
38.Animal-Testes Arthritis Drugs Killed Thousands
39.The Chloroform Controvosy
40.Anaemia Cure Fails in Animals
41.Research 'Paralyzed' by Animal Models
42.Anti-Cancer Hope Abandoned
43.Unexpected Eye Problems Led to Drug Rejection
44.Corticosteroids & Birth Defects
45."Harmless" Antidepressant Damaged Liver
46.Thalidomide
47.Beagle Dogs Mislead Cancer Research
48."Harmless" Ulcer Drug Could Cause Heart Failure
49.Antibiotic's Deadly Side-Effect
50.Leukemic Mice Fail Cancer Patients
51.The First Beta-Blockers
52.Minor Tranquillizers Produce Major Problems
53.Rifampcin & The Pill
54.Breast Cancer Drug Overcomes Conflicting Data
55.Steroids & the Immune System
56.X-Rays & Cancer
57.The Methanol Scandal
58.Obesity Drug's Horrific Side Effects
59.Daughters of DES
60.Heart Drug Fears Groundless
61.Pethidine Addiction
62."Safe" Eye Solutions Fail the Human Test
63.Toxic Treatments
64.Animals and Aids
65.Useful Therapies at Risk from False Animal Data
66.Transplant Drug Causes Unexpected Kidney Damage
67.Animal Tests mask Nerve Damage Risk
68.Cough Remedy Leaves Overdose Patients in Coma
69.nine Species Fails to Predict Liver Damage
70.Animal Victims Escalate after ICI Drug Fails
71.Liver Damages not Predicted... Again!
72.Animals Starve in Brain Research Fiasco
73.The Practolol Syndrome
74.Animals Miss Steroid Eye Risk
75.Babies at Risk from Talc
76.Animal Test Minimise Riot Gas Hazard
77.Lab Rats Raise False Fears Over Water Treatment
78.Natural Flavouring banned After Misleading Animal Data
79.Inhalations Test throw False Doubt on Formaldehyde
80.Epilepsy Model Give Fitful Results
81.Workers at Risk fri=om Misleading Animal Tests
82.Dog Deaths Deny Women Contraceptive Option
83.Useless Treatment Poisons Workers
84.Piosoning Tests Offer Little Hope to Overdose Patients
85.Animal Diet Studies Contradict Human Colon Risks
86.Cancer Cure Delayed by False Animal Data
87.Monkey Experiments Delay Polio Breakthrough
88.Antibiotics, Guinea Pigs & Hamsters
89.Animals Divert Attention from Cancer Prevention
90.The Dogma of Death
91.The Opren Affair
92.Laboratory Animals Fail Stroke Victims
93.Flexible Animal Test Support Rival Theories
94.Heart Drugs May Have Killed 3,000
95.Rats Cast Doubt on Olive Oil!
96.Bleach Highlights Faulty Skin Test
97.Smoking Dangers Masked by False Animal Data
98.Tragedy of the Killer Dust
99.Transplant Research Misdirected
100.Drug Danger Undetected
101.Tragedy Hits Hepatitis Victims


Given the background of the credited author, this would have to be a case of willful misrepresentation of the truth. Once we know one will lie for a cause any later references have to be suspect unless there is independent confirmation from a reputable source.

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“Intellect is invisible to the man who has none”
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"The difference between genius and stupidity is that genius has its limits."
Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 3:25 pm 
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According to this, the preclinical phase, which includes animal testing takes 3 to 4 years and the clinica; trials take 6 years. That means the human testing portion takes about twice the time for development than animal testing, but it is animal testing which is blamed for the same result as clinical trials. :eh:

http://www.jabfm.com/content/14/5/362.full.pdf

Drug development can generally be divided into
phases. The first is the preclinical phase, which
usually takes 3 to 4 years to complete.
If successful,
this phase is followed by an application to the FDA
as an investigational newdrug (IND). After an
IND is approved, the next steps are clinical phases
1, 2, and 3, which require approximately 1, 2, and 3
years, respectively, for completion
(Table 1). Importantly,
throughout this process the FDA and
investigators leading the trials communicate with
each other so that such issues as safety are monitored.
The manufacturer then files a newdrug
application (NDA) with the FDA for approval.
This application can either be approved or rejected,
or the FDA might request further study before
making a decision. Following acceptance, the FDA
can also request that the manufacturer conduct
additional postmarketing studies. Overall, this entire
process, on average, takes between 8 to 12
years.2

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“Intellect is invisible to the man who has none”
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"The difference between genius and stupidity is that genius has its limits."
Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 7:18 pm 
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http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/intellect
INTELLECT: the power or faculty of the mind by which one knows or understands, as distinguished from that by which one feels and that by which one wills; the understanding; the faculty of thinking and acquiring knowledge.
2. capacity for thinking and acquiring knowledge, especially of a high or complex order; mental capacity.
3. a particular mind or intelligence, especially of a high order.
4. a person possessing a great capacity for thought and knowledge.
5. minds collectively, as of a number of persons or the persons themselves.

Origin: 1350–1400; Middle English < Latin intellēctus, equivalent to intelleg ( ere ) to understand + -tus suffix of v. action; see intelligent

Synonyms 1. reason, sense, common sense, brains. See mind.

COMMON SENSE: sound practical judgment that is independent of specialized knowledge, training, or the like; normal native intelligence

MIND
1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the human mind. 2.
Psychology . the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities.
3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence.
4. a particular instance of the intellect or intelligence, as in a person.
5. a person considered with reference to intellectual power: the greatest minds of the twentieth century.


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intellect
INTELLECT
1. a. The ability to learn and reason; the capacity for knowledge and understanding.
b. The ability to think abstractly or profoundly. See Synonyms at mind.
2. A person of great intellectual ability.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mind
MIND n.
1. The human consciousness that originates in the brain and is manifested especially in thought, perception, emotion, will, memory, and imagination.
2. The collective conscious and unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and influence mental and physical behavior.
3. The principle of intelligence; the spirit of consciousness regarded as an aspect of reality.
4. The faculty of thinking, reasoning, and applying knowledge: Follow your mind, not your heart.


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intelligence
INTELLIGENCE n.
1. a. The capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.
b. The faculty of thought and reason.
c. Superior powers of mind. See Synonyms at mind.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_intelligence
Animal cognition is the study of the mental capacities of animals. It has developed out of comparative psychology, including the study of animal conditioning and learning, but has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. The alternative name cognitive ethology is therefore sometimes used; much of what used to be considered under the title of animal intelligence is now thought of under this heading.

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/47940997/ns/t ... intellect/
Baboons can distinguish between written words and gibberish. Monkeys seem to be able to do multiplication. Apes can delay instant gratification longer than a human child can. They plan ahead. They make war and peace. They show empathy. They share.
..scientists have watched chimpanzees in zoos collect and store rocks as weapons for later use. In May, a study found they even add deception to the mix. They created haystacks to conceal their stash of stones from opponents, just like nations do with bombs.
The chimp that can see the hidden food, quickly learns that his foe can't see it and uses that to his advantage, displaying the ability to perceive another ape's situation.

It was once thought the control of emotions and the ability to empathize and socialize separated us from our primate cousins. But chimps console, and fight, each other. They also try to soothe an upset companion, grooming and putting their arms around him.

"I see plenty of empathy in my chimpanzees," de Waal said. But studies have shown they also go to war against neighboring colonies, killing the males and taking the females. That's something that also is very human and led people to believe that war-making must go back in our lineage 6 million years, de Waal said.

When scientists look at our other closest relative, the bonobo, they see a difference. Bonobos don't kill. Hare says his experiments show bonobos give food to newcomer bonobos, even when they could choose to keep all the food themselves.

What's different is that the human communication system in the prefrontal cortex is more complex, Hare said.

So there are limits to what non-human primates can do. Animals don't have the ability to communicate with the complexity of human language. In the French study, the baboons can recognize that the letters KITE make a word because through trial and error they learn which letters tend to go together in what order. But the baboons don't have a clue of what KITE means. It's that gap that's key. "The boundaries are not as sharp as people think, but there are certain things you can't overcome and language is one of them," said Columbia University animal cognition researcher Herbert Terrace.

And that leads to another difference, Ross said. Because [u][b][color=#FF0000]apes lack language skills, they learn by watching and mimicking. Humans teach with language and explanation, which is faster and better
, Ross said.

The intelligence of primates was one of the factors behind a report last year by the Institute of Medicine that said the National Institutes of Health should reduce dramatically the number of chimpanzees it uses in biomedical research.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 7:42 pm 
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http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/ ... orell-text
Chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas have been taught to use sign language and symbols to communicate with us, often with impressive results. The bonobo Kanzi, for instance, carries his symbol-communication board with him so he can “talk” to his human researchers, and he has invented combinations of symbols to express his thoughts.

Charles Darwin, who attempted to explain how human intelligence developed, extended his theory of evolution to the human brain: Like the rest of our physiology, intelligence must have evolved from simpler organisms, since all animals face the same general challenges of life. They need to find mates, food, and a path through the woods, sea, or sky—tasks that Darwin argued require problem-solving and categorizing abilities. Indeed, Darwin went so far as to suggest that earthworms are cognitive beings because, based on his close observations, they have to make judgments about the kinds of leafy matter they use to block their tunnels. He hadn’t expected to find thinking invertebrates and remarked that the hint of earthworm intelligence “has surprised me more than anything else in regard to worms.”

To Darwin, the earthworm discovery demonstrated that degrees of intelligence could be found throughout the animal kingdom. But the Darwinian approach to animal intelligence was cast aside in the early 20th century, when researchers decided that field observations were simply “anecdotes,” usually tainted by anthropomorphism. In an effort to be more rigorous, many embraced behaviorism, which regarded animals as little more than machines, and focused their studies on the laboratory white rat—since one “machine” would behave like any other.

But if animals are simply machines, how can the appearance of human intelligence be explained? Without Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, the greater cognitive skills of people did not make sense biologically. Slowly the pendulum has swung away from the animal-as-machine model and back toward Darwin. A whole range of animal studies now suggest that the roots of cognition are deep, widespread, and highly malleable.

Just how easily new mental skills can evolve is perhaps best illustrated by dogs. Most owners talk to their dogs and expect them to understand. But this canine talent wasn’t fully appreciated until a border collie named Rico appeared on a German TV game show in 2001. Rico knew the names of some 200 toys and acquired the names of new ones with ease.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig heard about Rico and arranged a meeting with him and his owners. That led to a scientific report revealing Rico’s uncanny language ability: He could learn and remember words as quickly as a toddler. Other scientists had shown that two-year-old children—who acquire around ten new words a day—have an innate set of principles that guides this task. The ability is seen as one of the key building blocks in language acquisition. The Max Planck scientists suspect that the same principles guide Rico's word learning, and that the technique he uses for learning words is identical to that of humans.

To find more examples, the scientists read all the letters from hundreds of people claiming that their dogs had Rico’s talent. In fact, only two—both border collies—had comparable skills. One of them—the researchers call her Betsy—has a vocabulary of more than 300 words.

Deceptive acts require a complicated form of thinking, since you must be able to attribute intentions to the other person and predict that person’s behavior. One school of thought argues that human intelligence evolved partly because of the pressure of living in a complex society of calculating beings. Chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, and bonobos share this capacity with us. In the wild, primatologists have seen apes hide food from the alpha male or have sex behind his back.

Birds, too, can cheat. Laboratory studies show that western scrub jays can know another bird’s intentions and act on that knowledge. A jay that has stolen food itself, for example, knows that if another jay watches it hide a nut, there’s a chance the nut will be stolen. So the first jay will return to move the nut when the other jay is gone.

....To communicate with the dolphins, Herman and his team invented a hand- and arm-signal language, complete with a simple grammar. For instance, a pumping motion of the closed fists meant “hoop,” and both arms extended overhead (as in jumping jacks) meant “ball.” A “come here” gesture with a single arm told them to “fetch.” Responding to the request “hoop, ball, fetch,” Akeakamai would push the ball to the hoop. But if the word order was changed to “ball, hoop, fetch,” she would carry the hoop to the ball. Over time she could interpret more grammatically complex requests, such as “right, basket, left, Frisbee, in,” asking that she put the Frisbee on her left in the basket on her right. Reversing “left” and “right” in the instruction would reverse Akeakamai’s actions. Akeakamai could complete such requests the first time they were made, showing a deep understanding of the grammar of the language.


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PostPosted: Sun Jul 07, 2013 10:55 pm 
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LetiziaPallara wrote:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/intellect
INTELLECT: the power or faculty of the mind by which one knows or understands, as distinguished from that by which one feels and that by which one wills; the understanding; the faculty of thinking and acquiring knowledge.
2. capacity for thinking and acquiring knowledge, especially of a high or complex order; mental capacity.
3. a particular mind or intelligence, especially of a high order.
4. a person possessing a great capacity for thought and knowledge.
5. minds collectively, as of a number of persons or the persons themselves.


All of which precludes INSTINCTS from being included. Thus, the examples given are not of empathy. The assumption of intelligence also requires the assumption of sentience ... and not the redefinition currently used by many of the blog sources, but the scientific definition which includes higher intelligence.

Quote:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_intelligence
Animal cognition is the study of the mental capacities of animals. It has developed out of comparative psychology, including the study of animal conditioning and learning, but has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. The alternative name cognitive ethology is therefore sometimes used; much of what used to be considered under the title of animal intelligence is now thought of under this heading.


Wiki sources are useless in a discussion of science unless it is used as a collection of external links because ANYONE can modify the reference even in inaccurate directions.

Quote:
http://www.nbcnews.com/id/47940997/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/what-were-they-thinking-studies-reveal-animal-intellect/
Baboons can distinguish between written words and gibberish. Monkeys seem to be able to do multiplication. Apes can delay instant gratification longer than a human child can. They plan ahead. They make war and peace. They show empathy. They share.
..scientists have watched chimpanzees in zoos collect and store rocks as weapons for later use. In May, a study found they even add deception to the mix. They created haystacks to conceal their stash of stones from opponents, just like nations do with bombs.
The chimp that can see the hidden food, quickly learns that his foe can't see it and uses that to his advantage, displaying the ability to perceive another ape's situation.

It was once thought the control of emotions and the ability to empathize and socialize separated us from our primate cousins. But chimps console, and fight, each other. They also try to soothe an upset companion, grooming and putting their arms around him.

"I see plenty of empathy in my chimpanzees," de Waal said. But studies have shown they also go to war against neighboring colonies, killing the males and taking the females. That's something that also is very human and led people to believe that war-making must go back in our lineage 6 million years, de Waal said.

When scientists look at our other closest relative, the bonobo, they see a difference. Bonobos don't kill. Hare says his experiments show bonobos give food to newcomer bonobos, even when they could choose to keep all the food themselves.

What's different is that the human communication system in the prefrontal cortex is more complex, Hare said.

So there are limits to what non-human primates can do. Animals don't have the ability to communicate with the complexity of human language. In the French study, the baboons can recognize that the letters KITE make a word because through trial and error they learn which letters tend to go together in what order. But the baboons don't have a clue of what KITE means. It's that gap that's key. "The boundaries are not as sharp as people think, but there are certain things you can't overcome and language is one of them," said Columbia University animal cognition researcher Herbert Terrace.

And that leads to another difference, Ross said. Because [u][b][color=#FF0000]apes lack language skills, they learn by watching and mimicking. Humans teach with language and explanation, which is faster and better
, Ross said.

The intelligence of primates was one of the factors behind a report last year by the Institute of Medicine that said the National Institutes of Health should reduce dramatically the number of chimpanzees it uses in biomedical research.


Apes are an uncertainty because there are significant limitations which requires assumptions for any progression.

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PostPosted: Tue Jul 09, 2013 1:45 pm 
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Charles Darwin in the book The Descent of Man (1871):

[E]veryone has heard of the dog suffering under vivisection who licked the hand of the operator; this man, unless he had a heart of stone, must have felt remorse to the last hour of his life.



Darwin wrote to the Oxford zoologist Ray Lankester in 1871:

You ask about my opinion on vivisection. I quite agree that it is justifiable for real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. It is a subject which makes me sick with horror, so I will not say another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night.


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PostPosted: Tue Jul 09, 2013 10:47 pm 
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LetiziaPallara wrote:
Charles Darwin in the book The Descent of Man (1871):

[E]veryone has heard of the dog suffering under vivisection who licked the hand of the operator; this man, unless he had a heart of stone, must have felt remorse to the last hour of his life.



Darwin wrote to the Oxford zoologist Ray Lankester in 1871:

You ask about my opinion on vivisection. I quite agree that it is justifiable for real investigations on physiology; but not for mere damnable and detestable curiosity. It is a subject which makes me sick with horror, so I will not say another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night.



You do know that what was called vivisection at that time is not what is usually called vivisection now, right?

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PostPosted: Wed Jul 10, 2013 10:30 am 
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vep0YbndO14

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