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http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... 10343.html

.Atmospheric aerosols exert an important influence on climate1 through their effects on stratiform cloud albedo and lifetime2 and the invigoration of convective storms3. Model calculations suggest that almost half of the global cloud condensation nuclei in the atmospheric boundary layer may originate from the nucleation of aerosols from trace condensable vapours4, although the sensitivity of the number of cloud condensation nuclei to changes of nucleation rate may be small5, 6. Despite extensive research, fundamental questions remain about the nucleation rate of sulphuric acid particles and the mechanisms responsible, including the roles of galactic cosmic rays and other chemical species such as ammonia7. Here we present the first results from the CLOUD experiment at CERN. We find that atmospherically relevant ammonia mixing ratios of 100 parts per trillion by volume, or less, increase the nucleation rate of sulphuric acid particles more than 100–1,000-fold. Time-resolved molecular measurements reveal that nucleation proceeds by a base-stabilization mechanism involving the stepwise accretion of ammonia molecules. Ions increase the nucleation rate by an additional factor of between two and more than ten at ground-level galactic-cosmic-ray intensities, provided that the nucleation rate lies below the limiting ion-pair production rate. We find that ion-induced binary nucleation of H2SO4–H2O can occur in the mid-troposphere but is negligible in the boundary layer. However, even with the large enhancements in rate due to ammonia and ions, atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and sulphuric acid are insufficient to account for observed boundary-layer nucleation.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 03, 2012 8:21 am 
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Note the trend from 1950 onward.

Image

Then compare the cosmic ray cycle for a similar trend.

http://ulysses.sr.unh.edu/NeutronMonito ... tron2.html

See one?

The authors of this paper had a similar problem.

http://www.mps.mpg.de/dokumente/publika ... ki/r47.pdf

Note that between 1979 and 1985 the cosmic ray flux. although still behaving similarly to the temperature, in fact lags it and cannot be the cause of the rise. Thus changes in the cosmic ray flux cannot be responsible for more than 15% of the temperature increase.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 03, 2012 8:54 am 
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I'm reposting a post I just made on my blog to this post.

There have been a few myths propagated on the "mainstream" side of the climate debate. One of these myths is that since there has been no trend in Cosmic Rays over the last 50 years, they can not be causing warming. This is not true at all.

Image

The figure above compares the number of sunspots in green, to the Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI) in blue.

Image


The figure above shows the yearly global temperatures over the last 140 years, and the error bars for these yearly global temperatures. Comparing the Cosmic Ray Intensity to this graph, a slight increase in the minima of the Cosmic Ray Intensity from 1955-1970 corresponds well to a flatline in temperatures from 1940-1975.

The CRI then plummeted to a record low in 1992, which corresponds to a temperature increase during this period. Also note that towards the end, the temperatures have recently flatlined, as cosmic ray intensities have gone up slightly.

Image


This figure from above combines the global temperature anomalies to the Cosmic Ray Flux (CRF) from 1937-1994. There is a very good correspondance between the two variables, suggesting that Cosmic Rays (modulated by solar activity) play a large and dominant role in current climate change.

Not sure how Krivova and Solanki get an increase in the GCR counts in the 1990s, when GCRs reached a record low in 1992.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 03, 2012 9:28 am 
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I'll be back to reply to the rest of your posts, Wayne.

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