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PostPosted: Thu Feb 27, 2014 3:04 pm 
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Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Yet Another Tipping Point Coming
http://www.skepticalscience.com/Climate ... oming.html
I have talked about coming tipping points of nature that human emissions are leading to, with numerous links in other threads here.
One was the fact that we are losing the Arctic Polar Ice Cap and the resulting more and more open water takes in more and more heat until it doesn't need more human emissions to keep warming.
http://www.skepticalscience.com/less-ic ... rming.html
Two is the fact that we are very close to Arctic tundra methane self release, which was first pointed out by field scientists in 2009, and we were given a time to reduce emissions 90% to prevent it. Hansen said 2016 and McKibben with others in a more exhaustive study said 2023. This represents about 2.5 times the carbon going into the atmosphere that humans put there.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ ... -time-bomb
Three is the tipping point of ocean warming where the methane hydrate deposits at various depths self release from warming and cause more warming and more releases, until the entire ocean has released an equal or probably 20% greater amount of methane than the tundras do. This happens sooner than originally thought with recent ocean warming measurements.
Fourth is this one in the above article on the water and land itself putting out CO2 instead of taking it in with the natural absorption we've had for millions of years. :-k

We know that methane breaks down into CO2 and water vapor over a short period of 12 to 15 years and that clouds are a net small warming factor, along with the greater warming effect of CO2. At the rate peope are using slash and burn farming, and fossil fuel burning, until the inevitable population crash and most resources depletion in the late 2040s the CO2 will be at 470ppm, and the tundras will add another 500ppm or more and the oceans 600ppm or more. In 300 to 500 years the CO2 level will be 470 plus 500 plus 600 plus whatever the CO2 is released from the water itself and the ground, at least another 400ppm in my educated opinion. That is a world with a CO2 atmospheric amount of somewhere around 2000ppm. The warming of another 30*F is possible by this thermal maximum, too fast for adaptation of most species, and ecosystems we need to survive.
This is a phenomenon that will take several million years to recover from for the biosphere. That is, without a runaway greenhouse effect which could well happen, especially if the survivors of the population crash continue to burn fossil fuels until the last bit that is recoverable, according to Hansen, a guarantee.
That is the worst thing, because there would be no recovery and the Earth would lose its biosphere completely with oceans evaporated and ground heated to hot down hundreds of feet. Called the Venus Effect, that I hope humanity does not cause.
Personally, and I'm sure the majority also, would not even want to see the thermal maximum let alone even worse. So now is the time to spread the word to everyone to reduce emissions somehow 90% by 2023, by reducing demand with lower standard of living, lowering population, replacing all coal burners with GenIV nuclear, solar, wind, non-emissions made hydrogen, tidal and wave generators, and anything else that can be implemented fast.

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic ... permafrost
http://www.wunderground.com/climate/PETM.asp?MR=1
http://www.skepticalscience.com/A-Loomi ... nt-us.html
http://www.wunderground.com/news/meltin ... e-20130927
The Four Horsemen and links, too!!


Looks like Milt and other AGW deniers should look at these links and do some math---if they know how!! :razz: :?: #-o :mrgreen:

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PostPosted: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:34 pm 
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Global warming not slowing - it's speeding up
Posted on 12 March 2014 by James Wight

Figure 1: Global ocean heat content 1955-2013. (Source)
"The Earth is gaining heat faster than ever

In 2013 the Earth’s oceans accumulated energy at a rate of 12 Hiroshima atomic bombs per second, according to global ocean heat content records from the US National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). This rapid heating in 2013 compares to an average of 4 Hiroshima bombs per second since 1998, and 2 bombs per second since records began in 1955.

This is not the usual way to begin an article about global warming observations, but I have chosen to do so because ocean heat content is objectively the most important piece of evidence. The vast majority of heat from global warming goes into the oceans, so ocean heat content is a more reliable indicator of climate than surface or atmospheric temperature. This data shows global warming has accelerated in the last 15 years, contrary to denialist claims that global warming has “slowed”, “paused”, or “stopped” because the upper ocean, atmosphere, and surface have warmed more slowly in recent years. Warming oceans fuel hurricanes, raise sea level, melt sea ice, devastate coral reefs, and force fish to migrate to cooler waters."
https://www.skepticalscience.com/global ... ng-up.html

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“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Sat Mar 29, 2014 4:13 pm 
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Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Yet Another Tipping Point Coming
http://www.skepticalscience.com/Climate ... oming.html
I have talked about coming tipping points of nature that human emissions are leading to, with numerous links in other threads here.
One was the fact that we are losing the Arctic Polar Ice Cap and the resulting more and more open water takes in more and more heat until it doesn't need more human emissions to keep warming.
http://www.skepticalscience.com/less-ic ... rming.html
Two is the fact that we are very close to Arctic tundra methane self release, which was first pointed out by field scientists in 2009, and we were given a time to reduce emissions 90% to prevent it. Hansen said 2016 and McKibben with others in a more exhaustive study said 2023. This represents about 2.5 times the carbon going into the atmosphere that humans put there.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ ... -time-bomb
Three is the tipping point of ocean warming where the methane hydrate deposits at various depths self release from warming and cause more warming and more releases, until the entire ocean has released an equal or probably 20% greater amount of methane than the tundras do. This happens sooner than originally thought with recent ocean warming measurements.
Fourth is this one in the above article on the water and land itself putting out CO2 instead of taking it in with the natural absorption we've had for millions of years. :-k

We know that methane breaks down into CO2 and water vapor over a short period of 12 to 15 years and that clouds are a net small warming factor, along with the greater warming effect of CO2. At the rate peope are using slash and burn farming, and fossil fuel burning, until the inevitable population crash and most resources depletion in the late 2040s the CO2 will be at 470ppm, and the tundras will add another 500ppm or more and the oceans 600ppm or more. In 300 to 500 years the CO2 level will be 470 plus 500 plus 600 plus whatever the CO2 is released from the water itself and the ground, at least another 400ppm in my educated opinion. That is a world with a CO2 atmospheric amount of somewhere around 2000ppm. The warming of another 30*F is possible by this thermal maximum, too fast for adaptation of most species, and ecosystems we need to survive.
This is a phenomenon that will take several million years to recover from for the biosphere. That is, without a runaway greenhouse effect which could well happen, especially if the survivors of the population crash continue to burn fossil fuels until the last bit that is recoverable, according to Hansen, a guarantee.
That is the worst thing, because there would be no recovery and the Earth would lose its biosphere completely with oceans evaporated and ground heated to hot down hundreds of feet. Called the Venus Effect, that I hope humanity does not cause.
Personally, and I'm sure the majority also, would not even want to see the thermal maximum let alone even worse. So now is the time to spread the word to everyone to reduce emissions somehow 90% by 2023, by reducing demand with lower standard of living, lowering population, replacing all coal burners with GenIV nuclear, solar, wind, non-emissions made hydrogen, tidal and wave generators, and anything else that can be implemented fast.

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic ... permafrost
http://www.wunderground.com/climate/PETM.asp?MR=1
http://www.skepticalscience.com/A-Loomi ... nt-us.html
http://www.wunderground.com/news/meltin ... e-20130927
The Four Horsemen and links, too!!


Looks like Milt and other AGW deniers should look at these links and do some math---if they know how!! :razz: :?: #-o :mrgreen:

Yes, Milton, look at the wundergound PETM page........................even you should be able to see that it is going to get much worse.

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“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Tue Apr 08, 2014 11:54 am 
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These videos help explain some of what is going on;
http://www.skepticalscience.com/episode ... ously.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MVwmi7HCmSI
Arctic Death Spiral and the Methane Time Bomb
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6pFDu7lLV4
Methane Apocalypse, Everything Else Is A Distraction.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FnfygE5Lhw
This one is the best;
The Last Hours of Humanity: Warming the World to Extinction
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21D3ByfPTx8

http://lasthours.org/
Book Description
Publication Date: August 25, 2013

Humanity, as we know it, is on the verge of extinction.

There’s a common thread to every single mass extinction in our planet’s history. It’s global warming.

From the Permian Mass Extinction 250 million years ago that killed off 95% of all life on Earth to the K/T mass extinction 65 million years ago that killed off the dinosaurs, all were brought about by a sudden warming of the planet. New research shows that once that warming hits a tipping point of 5-6 degrees Celsius, it triggers a cataclysmic melting of sea ice and the release of noxious methane gasses stored deep in the oceans around the world and below the permafrost in the Arctic, which further accelerates the warming of the planet to temperatures unsuitable to life.

This book, The Last Hours of Humanity, goes where far too few researchers have been willing to go, which is addressing global warming not as an economic or political problem, but as a geological problem that threatens the survival of every living thing on the planet, including us humans.

By bringing together climate scientists, geologists, and cutting edge research too often left out of the global warming debate, the Last Hours of Humanity exposes the dangerous future of planet Earth, and what we humans have to do right now to save our species.
http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00ET8B0OE/ref ... le_ext_tmb

They have priced it at 99 cents so many can read it.......... :mrgreen:

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"With every decision, think seven generations ahead of the consequences of your actions" Ute rule of life.
“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 11, 2014 1:13 pm 
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See if you, too, can go to a viewing of this entire movie. I am going Sunday at 7PM MST.
http://yearsoflivingdangerously.com/
Years of Living Dangerously airs on Showtime starting April 13 at 10pm ET/PT. :mrgreen:

http://www.methanetracker.org/ColorMacroView.aspx
You can see the oceans are already releasing more methane..........

Old H. Ford and a comedian? That was a disappointing show. This is so much better;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?annotatio ... 6pFDu7lLV4

Why Methane Is CO2′s Evil Stepsister (And Why We Should Care)
Lynn Hasselberger, The Green Divas | April 11, 2014 10:26 am | Comments

"Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas that gets tossed around in most climate change conversations.
But methane (CH4) is making its way into the mainstream spotlight.
Here are some things that are happening:
Climate change is warming up areas that were typically cold enough for permafrost. Permafrost—soil that’s frozen year round and comprises 24 percent of Northern Hemisphere land (8.8 millions square miles)—is no longer “perma.”"
http://ecowatch.com/2014/04/11/methane- ... tepsister/
:shock: ](*,) 8-[ [-o< :mrgreen:
This is not good;
Now, we find this month's Arctic temperatures above that which tundra methane self releases.......
http://siberiantimes...h-temperatures/
"
By 2 April, 17 forest fires had been registered across 2,000 hectares. Among the areas now at risk after a faster-than-usual snow melt are the south of Siberia to the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District, to Baikal and the Amur regions.
'It was the hottest April 1 on record for several western Siberian cities, including Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Barnaul and Gorno-Altaysk,' said Renad Yagudin, of the Novosibirsk meteorological service. 'The average temperature in Russia increased 0.4 degrees every ten years. Overall, the temperature in the area is 6.5-16.2 degrees Fahrenheit (2-9 Celsius) higher than the record set in 1989.'"

!>>It is not ALL of the Arctic----yet. One thing for sure is that since the Tundra scientists(3 sets)first advised we were at the tipping point of positive feedback(2009), we are VERY close to the point of no return (past the tipping point).<<!

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"With every decision, think seven generations ahead of the consequences of your actions" Ute rule of life.
“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Sat Apr 26, 2014 3:29 pm 
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Now it appears that the Arctic temps measured have been inaccurate on the LOW side!
Now I know why so many others were not convinced about going into a methane turnover;
"The story has even been picked up by Science Magazine (pay walled).

News & Analysis

Climate ScienceClimate Outsider Finds Missing Global Warming

Eli Kintisch

"Major climate data sets have underestimated the rate of global warming in the last 15 years owing largely to poor data in the Arctic, the planet's fastest warming region. A dearth of temperature stations there is one culprit; another is a data-smoothing algorithm that has been improperly tuning down temperatures there. The findings come from an unlikely source: a crystallographer and graduate student working on the temperature analyses in their spare time."
How global warming broke the thermometer record

NOW look at the April Siberian temperature report again, then at near the end of the 2013 movie on the Arctic Death Spiral, listen again to the Russian woman scientist. Hear the stifled, cracked emotion in her voice, on describing the mechanism of the positive feedback loop and the extinction it portends."

This only increases the necessity of rapid decarbonization with rapid population decline.

There is also the school of thought that all these 4 tipping points are in a sequence one leading to the other. Yet open ocean warming, tundra methane accelerating releases, and oceanic methane release right now, show there is overlap.
I have read where it is considered past the open ocean tipping point leading to no north polar ice first, and that warming inevitably leads to the tundra methane positive feedback loop or self release, then to the ocean, then the CO2 release from hot land and seas. Let us pray and hope that rapid decarbonization and population reduction can stop this Permian style extinction.

_________________
"With every decision, think seven generations ahead of the consequences of your actions" Ute rule of life.
“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Thu May 01, 2014 2:23 pm 
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Here is a very good presentation in two parts on the feedbacks;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjZaFjXfLec

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUBZi3t4ZTo

a more involved interview, to be done again this month with the latest data.
Dr. Natalia Shakhova:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kx1Jxk6kjbQ

The Arctic Emergency was declared in 2011, and there is a high probability people will not reduce emissions enough, or it is already too late to stop what will eventually be a Permian type extinction.
Too darn bad. We should have started to change last century---I did. Not enough did....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5oXw_g ... 64&index=7

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“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Wed May 28, 2014 3:05 pm 
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The four tipping points, interconnected and overlapping, are for the warming to malevolence of the biosphere.
They are not the only tipping points in nature. We have passed the point where moderately forced one child families would have worked to stop the population crash (1998). Besides the release of CO2 from the oceans after the methane, other gases in large quantity will be released by anaerobic organisms in the form of deadly sulfur dioxide gas.
Unknown tipping points of even more havoc to our biosphere, like this:

Ocean acidification on track to be among the worst of the last 300 million years
New research finds that the current rate of ocean acidification puts us on a …
by Scott K. Johnson - Mar 1 2012, 2:00pm MDT
Photograph by noaa.gov

"Some like to point to cycles when dismissing climate change, brushing off warming as simply being the thing that happens right before cooling. In this view, concern about climate change is akin to the naïve worry that half of schools are performing below average. This is why we need context. We need to know whether an observed change is more like a world premiere or a familiar re-run.

A new paper in Science examines the geologic record for context relating to ocean acidification, a lowering of the pH driven by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The research group (twenty-one scientists from nearly as many different universities) reviewed the evidence from past known or suspected intervals of ocean acidification. The work provides perspective on the current trend as well as the potential consequences. They find that the current rate of ocean acidification puts us on a track that, if continued, would likely be unprecedented in last 300 million years.

There are several ways acidification events leave their signature in the rock record. The isotopic composition of carbon changes with shifts in the carbon cycle, such as the movement of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Isotopes of boron present in marine shells track ocean water pH. The ratios of other trace elements in marine shells (such as uranium or zinc) to calcium indicate the availability of carbonate ions. (Ocean acidification is not just about pH, but the reduction of carbonate mineral saturation that makes it more difficult for calcifiers to build their shells.) In addition to all this, the fossil record records the extinctions and morphological changes in marine species that occur around catastrophic events in Earth history. "
http://arstechnica.com/science/2012/03/ ... ion-years/

I would say there is also a tipping point where change is too rapid to keep up with in several ways, like keeping up with increasing data and knowledge.
Cascading ecological collapses progressing geometrically............

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“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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PostPosted: Thu May 29, 2014 5:17 pm 
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Johhny Electriglide wrote:
Now it appears that the Arctic temps measured have been inaccurate on the LOW side!
Now I know why so many others were not convinced about going into a methane turnover;
"The story has even been picked up by Science Magazine (pay walled).

News & Analysis

Climate ScienceClimate Outsider Finds Missing Global Warming

Eli Kintisch

"Major climate data sets have underestimated the rate of global warming in the last 15 years owing largely to poor data in the Arctic, the planet's fastest warming region. A dearth of temperature stations there is one culprit; another is a data-smoothing algorithm that has been improperly tuning down temperatures there. The findings come from an unlikely source: a crystallographer and graduate student working on the temperature analyses in their spare time."
How global warming broke the thermometer record

NOW look at the April Siberian temperature report again, then at near the end of the 2013 movie on the Arctic Death Spiral, listen again to the Russian woman scientist. Hear the stifled, cracked emotion in her voice, on describing the mechanism of the positive feedback loop and the extinction it portends."

This only increases the necessity of rapid decarbonization with rapid population decline.

There is also the school of thought that all these 4 tipping points are in a sequence one leading to the other. Yet open ocean warming, tundra methane accelerating releases, and oceanic methane release right now, show there is overlap.
I have read where it is considered past the open ocean tipping point leading to no north polar ice first, and that warming inevitably leads to the tundra methane positive feedback loop or self release, then to the ocean, then the CO2 release from hot land and seas. Let us pray and hope that rapid decarbonization and population reduction can stop this Permian style extinction.

"By 2 April, 17 forest fires had been registered across 2,000 hectares. Among the areas now at risk after a faster-than-usual snow melt are the south of Siberia to the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District, to Baikal and the Amur regions.
'It was the hottest April 1 on record for several western Siberian cities, including Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Barnaul and Gorno-Altaysk,' said Renad Yagudin, of the Novosibirsk meteorological service. 'The average temperature in Russia increased 0.4 degrees every ten years. Overall, the temperature in the area is 6.5-16.2 degrees Fahrenheit (2-9 Celsius) higher than the record set in 1989.'"
Postcards from the Fire's Edge
Welcome to Wildfire Season 2014. These photographs capture what life is like on a planet that's feeling the burn.
by Gail Henry @gailhenryny • May 28, 2014

"Over the last two weeks, California, Arizona, and Alaska have all had to deal with severe wildfires that have surprised officials with their ferocity … and their earliness. Of the nearly one dozen blazes that ended up consuming well over 25,000 acres in heavily populated San Diego County two weeks ago, Carlsbad Fire Chief Michael Davis—a 27-year-veteran—said: “This is unbelievable. This is something we should see in October … I haven’t seen it this hot, this dry, this long in May.”

Just as firefighters were struggling to contain the last of the Southern California burns, a second rash of fires erupted in a neighboring state: this time near Flagstaff, Arizona. As of this writing, the so-called Slide fire has covered more than 25 square miles of that state’s most scenic and well-visited parkland. On or about that same day, a relatively small wildfire on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula, south of Anchorage, began to build in intensity and started to spread; by the morning of Memorial Day it had grown to cover nearly 248 square miles—an area equivalent to the city of Chicago."
http://www.onearth.org/articles/2014/05 ... ll-of-rage
Hey, maybe all the particulates will cool the Arctic :-k

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 15, 2014 12:49 pm 
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Here is more on parts of tipping point #1;
Melting glaciers a ‘climate tipping point’, Bonn meeting told
Collapse of Antarctica ice sheets would cause catastrophic sea level rise, warns scientist
Dr Anders Levermann told a side event at the UN climate talks in Bonn that the Earth has entered a new era of irreversible climate change: “West Antarctica has tipped and there isn’t anything we can do about it.”

Frank McDonald
First published: Sat, Jun 14, 2014, 01:00

"World leaders need to ensure that global warming is kept low enough to avoid “pulling the plug” on vast ice shelves in Antarctica, thereby causing a catastrophic sea level rise across the globe, a leading scientist warned yesterday.

Dr Anders Levermann, of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, noted last month’s major scientific report warning that a collapse of large sections of the west Antarctica ice shelf had already begun and was now “unstoppable”.

“We have entered a new era of irreversible climate change, a tipping point of part of the climate system,” he told a side event at the UN climate talks in Bonn. “West Antarctica has tipped and there isn’t anything we can do about it.”"
http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/eu ... -1.1831906

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 11, 2014 2:02 pm 
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How Hot Will Your Summers Be? It says 2100, but is incredibly conservative;
http://www.climatecentral.org/news/summ ... ties-16583

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PostPosted: Sat Jul 26, 2014 5:25 pm 
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Another suggested tipping point is when the oceans get in sync with higher temps;
Scientists Identify Possible 'Tipping Point' of Global Warming
"The study, published this week in the journal Science, suggests that this combined ocean warming may have forced the Earth's climate past the point of no return.

"Synchronization of two major ocean systems can amplify the transport of heat toward the polar regions and cause larger fluctuations in northern hemisphere climate," lead author Summer Praetorius, a doctoral student in marine geology at Oregon State, said in a press release. "This is consistent with theoretical predictions of what happens when Earth's climate reaches a tipping point.""
http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles ... qus_thread
Another bump in the rocket ride to hell

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PostPosted: Wed Sep 24, 2014 12:54 pm 
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This shows that the tundra methane self-release tipping point is somewhat below 2*C total increase with momentum. However, the likelihood of even achieving 2*C total is slipping away........thermageddon here we come.
Scientists: Why clinging to a two degree limit may harm meaningful climate action
21 Sep 2014, 18:20
Roz Pidcock
"Hopes of keeping global warming below the long-established target of two degrees above pre-industrial levels are rapidly eroding, according to a collection of papers in two Nature journals today."
http://www.carbonbrief.org/blog/2014/09 ... -303429069
World on course to overshoot two degrees target, study shows
21 Sep 2014, 18:00
Mat Hope

"As world leaders prepare to meet in New York to reinvigorate global efforts to tackle climate change, a new study shows carbon dioxide emissions are set to hit record levels. Again.

The Global Carbon Project's (GCP) annual report warns that if emissions continue to climb, the world will soon pass the point at which it's likely global warming can be limited to two degrees above pre-industrial levels.

The report's author Professor Corinne Le Quéré says in a press release that the research shows politicians "need to think very carefully" about how to avert the worst impacts of climate change.

Record emissions

GCP estimates that the world will have emitted 40.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2014, a 2.2 per cent rise on last year's record breaking level."
http://www.carbonbrief.org/blog/2014/09 ... -303429069

Earlier this year the Siberian tundra was up to 9*C warmer, when the tipping point is 5*C of Arctic warming to initiate the positive feedback loop. World temperature rise to 1.8*C when what we have now is .8*C PLUS another .8*C in Momentum which hits from 15 to 40 years later. That is 1.6*C, and two more tenths by 2024, or before.

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PostPosted: Wed Oct 01, 2014 4:04 pm 
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I wonder why when the ice age ended and all that ice melted covering vast areas of permafrost with liquid water which very quickly melted all of it and released the methane contained the world did not find such a tipping point then?

Perhaps the sensitivity to such a thing has been greatly exaggerated...


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 01, 2014 4:25 pm 
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Why don't you peruse the links, or just pay attention to what I have written? Too hard?? :razz: :lol:
:mrgreen:

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“We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children”― Chief Seattle
“Those Who Have the Privilege to Know Have the Duty to Act”…Albert Einstein


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